Curriculum Provision

Mathematics and Numeracy

 Vision and philosophy



  • Mathematics is a critical part of life and for the country’s economy.​

  • Mathematics and numeracy experiences must be engaging, exciting and accessible, as well as challenging. ​

  • To develop mathematical proficiencies, positive dispositions and the four purposes of the curriculum.

 The Rationale for Change



  • Research about mathematics performance:​
    –  Estyn​
    –  international​ 

  • - PISA.



  • Too much reliance on procedural fluency (technique/tricks).​

  • Not enough conceptual understanding.

 How is it Different?



  • Organised around five mathematical proficiencies.​

  • Gives learners opportunities to use manipulatives and represent concepts in a variety of ways.​

  • Use verbs such as ‘explore’ and ‘derive’ to ensure balance between ‘breadth’ and ‘depth’.

Mathematical proficiencies


These inter-dependent proficiencies used in developing the descriptions of learning are central to progression at each stage of mathematics learning. Numeracy involves applying and connecting these proficiencies in a range of real-life contexts. The five mathematical proficiencies are:​



  • Conceptual understanding​

  • Fluency​

  • Communication with symbols​

  • Logical reasoning​

  • Strategic competence.

What & How?



A change in emphasis from ‘What’ to ‘What and How’ will influence pedagogy and result in teaching for conceptual understanding, as shown below.




What Matters?




  • The number system is used to represent and compare relationships between numbers and quantities.​

  • Algebra uses symbol systems to express the structures of relationships between numbers, quantities and relations.​

  • Geometry focuses on relationships involving properties of shape, space and position, and measurement focuses on quantifying phenomena in the physical world.​

  • Statistics represent data, probability models chance, and both support informed inferences and decisions.

Research​ - Curriculum reform



  • Designing a mathematics curriculum – Indonesia, issues around mathematics curriculum reform.​

  • Evolution of Singapore’s school mathematics curriculum.​

  • Mathematics curriculum in Pacific Rim Countries – China, Japan, Korea, and Singapore. ​

  • Finland curriculum structure and development. ​

  • National Mathematics Advisory Panel, US, 2008. ​

  • Excellence in Mathematics – Scotland (report from the Maths Excellence Group). ​

  • Interdisciplinary Programs Involving Mathematics – India.

Research ​- Curricula and associated pedagogy



  • Wales – Foundation Phase, Key Stages 2–4 programmes of study, National Literacy and Numeracy Framework (LNF), Task and Finish Report (Nov 2015), LNF – A Strategic Action Plan (2016).​

  • England –  Key Stages 1 and 2, Key Stage 3, Key Stage 4, Formal Written Methods.​

  • Scotland – Curriculum, Pedagogy, Numeracy Experiences, Numeracy Framework​

  • Republic of Ireland – Primary Curriculum and Teacher Guidance, Secondary – Project Maths (programme to bring more problem solving in secondary schools).​

  • Singapore – Primary, Secondary. ​

  • Finland – Curriculum (P. 158-167), Problem Solving.​

  • Ontario – Primary , Secondary.​

  • Quebec – Primary, Secondary (embedded in Maths/Science/Technology subject area).​

  • Mastery approach being promoted in England – mastery, video1  video2 and maths hubs.

EvidenceEstyn 


Mathematics



  • Good Practice in mathematics Key Stage 3, 2015​

  • Good Practice in mathematics Key Stage 4, 2013​

  • Best practice in mathematics for pupils aged 3 to 7 years, June 2009​


Numeracy



  • Numeracy in key stages 2 and 3: an interim report, November 2014​

  • Numeracy in key stages 2 and 3: a baseline study, June 2013​

  • Numeracy for 14 to 19-year-olds, July 2011​

  • Improving numeracy in key stage 2 and key stage 3, April 2010​


Evidence: Others



  • Does Financial Education Impact Financial Behavior, and if So, When?​

  • Should all students be taught complex mathematics? (OECD Library Publication)​

  • 10 Questions for Maths Teachers   … and how PISA can help answer them. (OECD publication)​

  • Achievement of 15-Year-Olds in Wales: PISA 2012 National Report​

Expert input and feedback includes the following.



  • Estyn.​

  • Qualifications Wales.​

  • Marie Joubert (NNEM researcher), various. ​

  • Anne Watson, Emeritus Professor, Oxford University, ‘Pedagogical guidance for mathematics’: Excellent pedagogy and the twelve generic pedagogical principles from Successful Futures and ‘Digital technology and the new Welsh mathematics curriculum’.​

  • Professor Matthew Jarvis ‘AoLE Implementation of the ‘Welsh Dimension and International Perspective’’.​

  • Tom Cox, ‘Wider Skills and the Areas of Learning and Experience (AoLE): An audit and analysis with proposals for future work’.​

  • Learning Partnership.​

  • Foundation Phase Expert Group.​


Progression: CAMAU team

Considerations for Schools



  • How will your leaders, practitioners and networks be able to prepare for the next phase of co-construction and provide meaningful feedback?  ​

  • What, if any, are the resourcing implications (national and local)?​

  • How could you approach whole-school and/or inter-departmental approaches to both:​
    –  knowing about the new curriculum?​
    –  understanding how to do the new curriculum?

 

Languages, Literacy and Communication

 

A celebration of languages and cultures, embracing :



  • a bilingual Wales in an international context.​

  • Bringing together Welsh, English and international languages and literature for all.​

  • Develop ambitious, capable and confident language learners who communicate effectively using both Welsh ​
    and English as well as international languages across ​
    a variety of media.​

  • Stimulated learners developing knowledge, skills, positive attitudes and motivation through meaningful contexts.


  • The citizens of modern Wales speak various languages reflecting diverse cultures; we want to celebrate and build on this.​

  • Exploring identities and cultures through languages can connect learners with people, places and communities in bilingual Wales and the multilingual world. ​

  • Reverse the decline of modern foreign languages through positive, motivating experiences at a young age.​

  • Language skill sets promote understanding and development in all languages. ​

  • Remove artificial distinction between Welsh and Welsh second language so all learners are able to use Welsh as per the four purposes of the curriculum.​

  • Differentiated achievement outcomes reflect the different pace and depth of learning, allowing learners and teachers to recognise progression pathways. 


  • Focus on the importance of learning about languages, and the way they relate and reflect our cultures and identities.​

  • By the end of primary school, learners will experience different languages and make progress in Welsh, English and ​
    at least one international language.​

  • When learners leave school, they will be able to use Welsh, English and their other languages in a meaningful way.​

  • Oracy, reading and writing have equal prominence.​

  • Literature for all learners: opportunities to explore and create a range of literature in Welsh, English and international languages.


  • Learning about identity and culture through languages prepares us to be citizens of Wales and the world.​

  • Learners who listen and read effectively are prepared to learn throughout their lives.​

  • Learners who speak and write effectively are prepared to play a full part in life and work.​

  • Literature fires imaginations and inspires creativity.


  • Consideration of curricula in other countries. ​

  • Consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of current programmes of study for Welsh, Welsh second language, English ​
    and modern foreign languages (MFL), as well as the literacy ​
    elements of the National Literacy and Numeracy Framework (LNF).​

  • Expert input on different aspects of languages, literacy and literature.​

  • Development of a framework of progression for any language from little or no language towards proficiency.​

  • Development of differentiated achievement outcomes to reflect different language learning contexts.

Experts who supported the group include the following:



  • Neil Mercer, Oracy Cambridge.​

  • Laurie Smith, Kings College, London.​

  • Enlli Thomas, Bangor University.​

  • Mererid Hopwood, University of Wales Trinity St David (UWTSD).​

  • Sioned Davies, Cardiff University.​

  • Dominic Wyse, UCL Institute of Education (IOE).​

  • Helen Prosser, National Centre for Learning Welsh.​

  • Josephine Moate, Jyväskylä University.

  • Catherine Driver, English as an additional language (EAL) consultant.​

  • Diane Leedham, English as an additional language (EAL) consultant. ​

  • Elen Roberts, Education Achievement Service (EAS).​

  • British Council.​

  • CAMAU. ​

  • Cymru Wales Classics Hub.​

  • Estyn.​

  • Global Futures Steering Group. ​

  • Literature Wales.​

  • National Deaf Children’s Society.​

  • Qualifications Wales.​


  • How will your leaders, practitioners and networks be able to prepare for the next phase of co-construction and provide meaningful feedback?  ​

  • What, if any, are the resourcing implications (national and local)?​

  • How could you approach whole-school and/or inter-departmental approaches to both:​
    –  knowing about the new curriculum?​
    –  understanding how to do the new curriculum?

  • What resource, professional learning and organisational implications arise from this area of learning, for example whole-school approach, Siarter Iaith?​

  • English-medium: How do we ensure schools are providing sufficient opportunities for learners to develop and use their Welsh? ​

  • Primary: What model(s) could your school use in order to facilitate learning international languages, for example  online resources, cluster school support, professional learning for staff?

Science and Technology

 


  • Science and technology are intrinsically linked, and includes design and technology, engineering, computer science, ​
    biology, chemistry and physics.​

  • Science and Technology demands a coherent framework ​
    for learning across traditional domains, reflecting real-world needs.​

  • The underlying concepts of science and computational thinking enable technological advancement.​

  • Science and Technology supports progression in and across subject specialisms, and prepares learners to use science and technology in their every day lives.


  • Boundaries of science and technology are continuously changing.​

  • Economic imperative – huge opportunities for learners.​

  • Need for learners to meet twenty-first century challenges and opportunities irrespective of career choice.​

  • Current learner preparation insufficient to meet needs. ​

  • Need knowledge and skills – contextualised through experiences.​

  • Need creators of and through technology, not just competent users – hence conceptual understanding of computation.  


  • Computation is a new element for ages 3 to 16. ​

  • Guided learner-led approaches and ‘thematic’ learning.​

  • Better balance between knowledge acquisition and skills development through real-world learning experiences. ​

  • Likely to require a multidisciplinary approach.​

  • More seamless transitions – with greater clarity over prior learning and next steps. ​

  • Outdoor learning to enhance the learning experience.​

  • Emphasis on the impacts of science and technology on learners’ lives and the environment. 


  • Being curious and searching for answers helps further our understanding of the natural world and helps society progress.​

  • Design thinking and engineering are technical and creative endeavours intended to meet society’s needs and wants.​

  • The world around us is full of living things which depend on each other for survival. ​

  • Understanding the atomic nature of matter and how it shapes the world.​

  • Forces and energy determine the structure and dynamics of the universe.  ​

  • Computation applies algorithms to data in order to solve ​
    real-world problems.


  • Collaborative work and research to create and trial different ideas; substantial expert advice. ​

  • Experiments with a thematic approach using traditional subjects in five broad what matters statements limited progression and opportunities for specialist study later on.​

  • Agreed approach is based on principles in ‘Big Ideas of Science’.​

  • Agreed result is six interrelated what matters statements that are more accessible for all teachers, facilitating broad and specialist learning.

Evidence and expert input in specific areas include the following.​




  • Practitioners: Pioneers and non-pioneers, regional consortia advisors, further education.​


  • Big Ideas of Science and principles for progression: Professor Wynne Harlen. ​


  • Big Ideas of Design and Technology: Dr David Barlex and Torben Steeg.​


  • Computational concepts: Professor Crick, Professor Moller – Swansea University.​


  • Science and Technology in Wales: Professor Tucker/Learned Society of Wales.


  • Evidence and expert input in specific areas include the following.​



    • International curricula considered: Estonia, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, USA, British Columbia, Singapore, Ontario, Finland and Scotland.​

    • Expert advice and inputs: Institute of Physics, Royal Society of Chemistry, Royal Society of Biology, Wellcome Trust, DATA, Estyn, higher education institutes (Cardiff Met, Cardiff, Swansea, Bangor, Glasgow, Stirling, University of Wales Trinity St David, Aberdeen), Engineering UK, Qualifications Wales




  • How will your leaders, practitioners and networks be able to prepare for the next phase of co-construction and provide meaningful feedback?  ​

  • What, if any, are the resourcing implications (national and local)?​

  • How could you approach whole-school and/or inter-departmental approaches to both:​
    –  knowing about the new curriculum?​
    –  understanding how to do the new curriculum?

  • Primary: expectations for learning in this area of learning and experience may cause some staff initial concern. How will you plan to mitigate that? Will specific professional learning be needed?​

  • Secondary: expectation that learners will have access to subject-specialist teachers as they progress. How will you facilitate this in your school? ​

  • Consider the breadth of the area of learning and experience and how you will manage the new computation element.  What is needed to ensure the success of this? ​

  • What are the resource implications for your school arising from this particular area of learning and experience?

Expressive Arts

 


  • Allow the space for all learners to be creative.​

  • Make the offer fully inclusive.​

  • Link to positive health and well-being outcomes.​

  • Ensure that Expressive Arts skills are recognised ​
    as transferable and that they have a direct link to careers and lifelong learning.​


  • An arts-rich education is core to the whole-school experience of a learner.​

  • All learners need to have access to rich contexts in which they have time to explore, to respond and to create.​

  • Learners need access to all Expressive Arts disciplines.​


  • It encompasses dance, drama, film and digital media, music, and visual arts linked by a common creative process and transferable skills.​

  • Learning is linked through the creative process enabling a deeper understanding of individual disciplines to be developed.​

  • Progression is not linear.​

  • A focus on rich, authentic contexts for learning runs from ages ​
    3 to 16.​

  • Learner voice is encouraged.​

  • Collaboration across the area of learning and experience and across other areas of learning and experience.​

  • Flexibility – variety of delivery models.​


  • Exploration through and of the Expressive Arts deepens our artistic knowledge and contributes to our understanding of identities, cultures and societies.​

  • Responding and reflecting, both as artist and audience, ​
    is a fundamental part of learning about and through the Expressive Arts.​

  • Creative work combines knowledge and skills using the senses, inspiration and imagination.


  • A focus on research, evidence and expert input.​

  • Review and discussion leading to agreement on moving away from individual disciplines to the broader Expressive Arts Area of Learning and Experience.​

  • Consideration of best practice and professional dialogue within the pioneer group.​

  • Acting upon feedback from pioneer group schools, stakeholders, other areas of learning and experience, etc.


  • Research: OECD reports  on arts and creativity, Arts in Education in Wales (Prof Dai Smith), Progression in Creativity (Spencer, Lucas, Claxton).​​




  • Evidence: Creative Learning through the Arts programme (Arts Council of Wales in partnership with the Welsh Government); Estyn best practice reports; Foundation Phase pedagogy; Creative Learning – Paul Collard; Sir Ken Robinson on creativity in education.​​




  • Consideration of other curricula – Australia, British Columbia, Ireland, Quebec, New Zealand, Scotland, Ontario.​




  • Expert input and feedback: Arts Council Wales; Estyn; Qualifications Wales; Dance – Geraldine Hurl; Drama – Emma Thayer, Cardiff Metropolitan University School of Education; Film – Into Film Wales; Digital Media – Dr Jenny Kidd, Cardiff University School of Journalism; Martin Thomas, Coleg Cambria; Music – Professor Chris Collins, Bangor University; Visual Arts – Gwenllian Beynon, University of Wales Trinity St David.

  • Progression: CAMAU team.​




  • Best practice and professional dialogue within pioneer group.​




  • Acting upon feedback from pioneer group schools, stakeholders, other areas of learning and experience.




  • How will your leaders, practitioners and networks be able to prepare for the next phase of co-construction and provide meaningful feedback?  ​

  • What, if any, are the resourcing implications (national and local)?​

  • How could you approach whole-school and/or inter-departmental approaches to both:​
    –  knowing about the new curriculum?​
    –  understanding how to do the new curriculum?​


 

 

 

 

 

 Preparing for the Curriculum

Health and Well-being


  • Designed to equip learners to lead healthy, fulfilling and productive lives.​

  • Enables successful learning and fulfilling relationships.​

  • Focuses on the physical, psychological, emotional and social aspects of our lives.​

  • A holistic approach to help schools address their priority areas.


  • Aligns with the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015. ​

  • Education on mental, emotional and physical health needs to be more integrated – growing challenges.​

  • Current provision is inconsistent.​

  • Supporting and developing the health and well-being of all learners in Wales cannot be left to chance.


  • Holistic – Health and Well-being is an area of learning and experience but should be everyone’s responsibility.​

  • Experiences, knowledge and skills that lead to healthy ​
    and active lifestyles.​

  • Supports physical and mental health.​

  • Develops learners so they engage in lifelong physical activity.​

  • Must reflect local needs as well as national and global issues.


  • Developing physical health and well-being has lifelong benefits. ​

  • How we process and respond to our experiences affects our mental health and emotional well-being.​

  • Our decision-making impacts on the quality of our lives and the lives of others. ​

  • How we engage with different social influences shapes who we are and our health and well-being. ​

  • Healthy relationships are fundamental to our sense of belonging and well-being. 


  • Research reviewed/international curricula considered.  ​

  • Priorities identified at local, national and global levels.​

  • Dispositions for a fulfilling and productive life agreed.​

  • Five broad areas identified. ​

  • Expert support provided for rationale and progression.​

  • ‘Boundaries’ and interdependencies of what matters statements defined.

  • Engagement with schools, partners and stakeholders.​

General: Estyn and Qualifications Wales.​
Relationships and sexuality education: Professor Emma Renold, Cardiff University. ​


Integration of mind/body and emotions: Dr Dan Siegel, University of California. ​
Neuroscience and the power of reflective practice: Dr Dusana Dorjee, Bangor University​. ​
Physical literacy: Dr Elizabeth Durden-Myers, Liverpool John Moores University​ and Gethin Mon Thomas, Bangor University​. ​
Relationships and social and emotional learning: Professor Robin Banerjee, Sussex University.​
Health: Public Health Wales, Schools Health Research Network.​



  • How will your leaders, practitioners and networks be able to prepare for the next phase of co-construction and provide meaningful feedback?  ​

  • What, if any, are the resourcing implications (national and local)?​

  • How could you approach whole-school and/or inter-departmental approaches to both:​
    –  knowing about the new curriculum?​
    –  understanding how to do the new curriculum?​


 

 

 

 

Humanities

 


  • Encompasses history, geography, religious education, business studies and social studies. ​

  • Holistic, integrated and interdisciplinary approach.​

  • Rigour and specialisation at Progression step 5 prepares learners for further studies.​

  • Develops a sense of heritage and place through their cynefin, Wales and as part of the wider world.​

  • Encompasses past, present and future, including the role of learners as citizens.​


  • Autonomy, flexibility and creativity leads to authentic learning.​

  • Interdisciplinary approach supports development of knowledge and skills.​

  • Connecting experiences, knowledge and skills brings rich opportunities.​

  • Incorporates business and social studies.​

  • Religious education in the curriculum allows for parity.​


  • Holistic and interdisciplinary.​

  • Disciplines more visible from Progression step 4.​

  • Greater importance on authentic experiences.​

  • Focus on global citizenship and participating in social action.​

  • Earlier engagement with business studies and social studies.​

  • Balance between local, Welsh/British and global studies.​

  • Religious education included and statutory for learners aged​
    3 to 16.​

These what matters statements are linked and are not intended to be taken in isolation.​




  • Developing an enquiring mind enables learners to explore and investigate the world, past, present and future, for themselves. ​

  • Events and human experiences are complex, and are perceived, interpreted and represented in different ways.​

  • Our natural world is diverse and dynamic, influenced by physical processes and human actions.​

  • Human societies are complex and diverse, and are shaped by human actions and beliefs. ​

  • Informed, self-aware citizens engage with the challenges and opportunities that face humanity, and are able to take considered, ethical and sustainable action.​


  • International curriculum models considered.​

  • Papers commissioned from experts.​

  • Common concepts, skills and themes identified.​

  • Broad areas identified to inform the what matters statements.​

  • Key concepts and disciplinary themes developed in the what matters statements.​

  • Expert and stakeholder feedback.​

  • CAMAU support on progression.​

Disciplinary experts




  • E Jones – The Essentials of History (2017).​

  • C Sinnema – Social Studies in the Welsh Curriculum (2017).​

  • C Jones – Business and the Economy in the Welsh Curriculum (2017); Nation Cymru (2018).​

  • E Rawling – commissioned work on the geography curriculum (2017).​

  • G Millar – Geographical association and its contribution to ‘Big Ideas’.​

  • R Jones – Making Sense of Ourselves and Others (2017).​

  • P Sutch – Politics and the Humanities (2018).​

  • G Donaldson – Successful Futures (2015).​

  • B Wintersgill – Big Ideas for Religious Education.​

  • Standing Advisory Council for Religious Education (SACREs).​

  • Estyn and Qualifications Wales.​


Consideration of other curricula:




  • Australia.​

  • British Columbia, Canada.​

  • Ontario, Canada.​

  • Finland.​

  • New Zealand.​

  • Scotland.​

  • Singapore. ​


  • How will your leaders, practitioners and networks be able to prepare for the next phase of co-construction and provide meaningful feedback?  ​

  • What, if any, are the resourcing implications (national and local)?​

  • How could you approach whole-school and/or inter-departmental approaches to both:​
    –  knowing about the new curriculum?​
    –  understanding how to do the new curriculum?​